San Francisco de Borja y Salus Populi Romani

San Francisco de Borja y Salus Populi Romani

Dos Estrellas que no Brillaron en los Cielos de Retablos Mexicanos

Saint Francis Borja and Salus Populi Romani

Two Stars that did not Shine in the Skies of Mexican Retablos

By Pichilingue
March 31,2000
Copyright - New Mexico State University

Juan Borja, the third Duke of Gandia, which is in the province of Valencia, Spain, and Joanna de Aragon had fourteen children. The first-born was Francis in 1510. By both sides of his parents, he was the greatgrandson of Pope Alexander VIand King Ferdinand V of Aragon, often called Ferdinand "the Catholic." Emperor Charles V was a distant cousin. At ten, after the death of his mother, he was sent to Zaragoza to be with his stepuncle, the Archbishop Juan of Aragon, to start his private education. By the age of seventeen years, his education completed, he entered the service of Charles V. (1)

In 1529, he married Leonor de Castro, a Portuguese noblewoman and lady-in-waiting at court. This union, a very loving one, produced eight children, five boys and three girls. The next year, King Charles raised his barony of Lombay to the category of marquisate and named him first hunter of the court and head of the Empress Isabella's stables. (2)

Isabella died on May 1, 1539; and Francis and his wife were designated to accompany the funeral entourage from Toledo to the Imperial tombs at the Capilla Real of the cathedral in Elvira, near Granada. Juan assisted in the burial ceremonies, which consisted, in part, of his identifying the corpse as being that of the empress. Since the decomposition and stench of the uncovered coffin was so bad - her face was apparently unrecognizable - Francis could only swear that it was her body, because he had taken such care on the road that nobody could have switched the corpse. It is said, that at this moment he decided to serve God and not the court, because in this way death could not rob him of his master. In this same year he was appointed the Imperial Viceroy of Catalonia where he carried out his duties in a most exemplary and forceful manner.

In December 1542, his father died; and in January 1543 he became the fourth Duke of Gandia and assumed his responsibilities in that town. Upon the death of his wife on March 27, 1546, he decided to take his first vows in the Society of Jesus. He followed this a year later with his solemn profession, in a secret ceremony, in the chapel of the palace or perhaps in the chapel of the Jesuit College he had founded in Gandia. This was one of the first Jesuit schools in Europe. Ignatius Loyola, who had received his petition to join the recently formed society, advised him to get his children settled and to get a doctorate in theology. This was accomplished at the Jesuit University of Gandia, the college that had been made a university in 1547 by a papal bull.

Once his family affairs had been settled and he had received his degree, he went to Rome in August 1550, but not before having asked the emperor allow him to resign his titles and properties in favor of his son. He was accepted into the Society of Jesus in 1551 and was ordained a priest at Onate, Spain, the same year. All of these events caused a great deal of sensation and notoriety and such names as "the Holy Duke" or "the duke who turned Jesuit" were applied to him.

The most important remaining highlights of then Father Borja were:

1552 While in Rome, the threat of a cardinal's hat makes him return to Spain in order to avoid it. One more time, it was offered to him with the same result: his non-acceptance.

1553-1561 He was Commissary for Spain, Portugal, and both Indies. He traveled extensively in both Iberian countries and was placed over all foreign missions for these two nations.

1561-1565 Returned to Rome and was named Vicar General for Spain and Portugal.

1558 Charles V dies and Father Borja is co-executor of the Emperor's will.

1559 Never a friend of the Inquisition, they start to exert pressure on him. 1565-1572 After Diego Lainez's death, he was elected the third Father General of the Society of Jesus.

1571 Started the organization to send Jesuits to Mexico. After several delays, fifteen Jesuits (eight priests, school scholars, and four coadjutors) arrived in Mexico City on September 28, 1572, two days after Borja's death. The Mexican Jesuits considered him their founder and chose him for their patron. (3)

This patrician saint was "already canonized in the minds of the populace.', (4) Everywhere, crowds clamored to "see the saint," but even with this sentiment being prevalent, it took almost one hundred years for him to be canonized. (5) Because of his zealous work on behalf of the Society, he has often been called the "second founder.', (6) He elevated teaching, helped found the Roman College and German College, and started II Gesu in Rome. He was behind the establishment of numerous colleges and houses in Europe and of the new missionary provinces in New Spain and Peru as welL as the East Indies area. He strengthened and formalized the Jesuit institutes and insisted with Pope Pius V (1556-1572) that the civil rulers treat the natives of the colonies humanely.

There are no official paintings of Francis from real life. It is said that even on his deathbed he turned his face to the wall so as not to be sketched. After his passing, the brothers did make a death mask casting of his head. It is at the Gesu Church in the Saint Ignatius Chapel.7 We can thus suppose that some of the painters of Francis used this death mask as a guide, in the same fashion that Alfonso Sanchez Coello painted the "only authentic portrait of Saint Ignatius Loyola" from his death mask.8 Even in the book of pictures or photographs of Spanish personages, Francis is listed under Duke of Gandia; but his portrait is that of a priest and is entitled "Beatified Saint Francis Borxa.', (9) This depiction of him is almost identical to his portrait at the Society of Jesus at Gandia. (1O)

The best that I have been able to come up with on his iconography is as follows (please refer to the bibliography for sources, duplications are excluded):

Charles Cahier:

1. Cardinal's hat close to him or at his feet. This signifies his refusal of the cardinalate.

2. Holy Eucharist or monstrance in his hand. He was particularly devoted to it. This is a personal attribute.

3. In prayer in front of the hostia or Holy Sacrament. He spent many hours in prayer.

4. Less frequently, holding a picture of the Holy Virgin in the likeness of a Byzantine Madonna. He had many copies made to be sent to far away places in order to extend the cult of Mother of God.

5. Skull covered with imperial crown. Desire to renounce the world which came about when seeing the mortal remains of Empress Isabella during her funeral. To me, this is his main and perhaps most infallible attribute.)

6. Patron of I.isbon, Portugal.

Juan Ferrando Roig:

7. Wears black cassock and belt or sash and a white collar doubled over.

8. Ducal crown in hand or on the ground, which indicates that he renounced it.

Louis Reau:

9. Patron of the Province of Valencia, Spain

10. Invoked against earthquakes.

11. Poverty of iconography may be due to lateness of canonization.

Clara Erskin Clement Waters:

12. Jesuit saints in general, heart inscribed with "IHS" or heart crowned with thorns.

13. Crown at feet as saint of royal blood.

Helen Roeder:

14. Kneeling before the· Blessed Sacrament.

15. Skull on book.

Frederick Charles Husenbeth:

16. Shown baptizing Indians or Japanese.

Other attributes from miscellaneous sources:

17. Holding a quill.

18. Kneeling at altar on which there is a pyx.

To finish the informative details of Francis,Borja, below are listed the more salient details:

Born: October 28, 1510, in Gandia.

Died: September 30-0ctober 1, 1572, at midnight, in Rome. Beatified: November 24, 1624, by Urban VIII. (11)

Canonized: April 12, 1671, by Clement X.

Bull of Canonization: Published June 4, 1724, by Benedict XIII. Feast Day: October 10, 1683, by Innocent XI.

Ordained: May 23, 1551, at Onate, Basque Country, Spain.

Buried:

1. Church of the Gesu, Rome.
2nd April 22, 1617, remains sent to Madrid, less one arm, which is at Gesu.
3rd Placed at church of house of La Profesa on del Prado Street.
4th Between 1617 and 1628, a rib was sent to Lima, Peru.
5th To new church of La Profesa at small Square of Herradores in 1627.
6th To new church of La Profesa on Calle de la Flor on July 30, 1901.
7th Above church was set on fire during the Spanish Civil War, in May 1931.
8th The few calcinated remains that were recovered are now venerated at the new church of the Compania on Calle Serrano.

As mentioned earlier, Charles Cahier stated that "BOlja is sometimes shown holding a picture of a Byzantine-styled Madonna.,,12 This seemingly simplistic statement has wider implications as far as the role that Borja played in his deep seated Marian devotion and the role that he played in disseminating to the foreign missions.

When one tries to pin down exact details of a religious genre, one may end up having more than one alternative. As the legend goes, a wealthy but childles's Roman patrician not knowing what to do wIth his estate was told in a dream to build a church where snow would appear. Although it was the middle of summer, his dream came true the very next day when a patch of snow - sometimes believed to have been hail - was found on Mount Esquiline. A small basilica was built in August 352 and con sec-rated by Pope Liberius (352-366). It was Pope Sixtus (432-440) who built a stately basilica on the same spot and dedicated it to the Mother of God. This church, Saint Mary Major, is also known by the titles of:

Liberian Basilica, Saint Mary of the Snow, and Saint Mary of the Crib because of the relics of the crib from Bethlehem. It is one of the four Patriarchal Papal Basilicas in Rome and also the most important one dedicated to Mary. The Sistine Chapel is located here.

Pope Liberius was the one who chose the image for this new sanctuary. The painting was one attributed to St. Luke the Evangelist, and the official title was Salus Populi Romani.' It too is sometimes referred to as Our Lady of San Lucas. It seems that many of these sad-visaged saints are included among the numerous images said to have been painted or sculpted by St. Luke acheiropoietos or "not made by human hands:" This oriental superstition and tradition was definitively rejected by the Bolandists as a medieval legend.

Pope Paul V (1605-1621), of the Borghese family, had a sumptuous chapel built to hold this painting. This structure is called the Pauline, or Borghese, Chapel. If this icon, by an unknown artist, came from Constantinople during the middle of the fourth century, it might even be a duplicate. Rather than try to describe this brownish colored Madonna, please look at Figure 1.13 You will notice two sets of Greek characters on either side of the head of Mary - "MP" and "0Y" - with a line or stroke above these letters. These lines indicate that the letters below them are a contraction of a longer word. These are the first and last letters of the words "Mother of God." Another Eastern emblem of Mary is three stars on her veil, one on her head one on each shoulder. These cannot be discerned in this copy of Salus Populi Romani, although there is a small cross on the veil over her forehead.

There was a strict prohibition of making copies of this icon. Since Borja and his fellow brothers wanted to keep alive the devotion for the image which their founder Ignacio Loyola had professed, Borja had to (image needed here) i Figure 1. Image of Salus Populi Romani in the Borghese Chapel of Saint Mary Major Church, Rome

obtain a special authorization - which would probably not be again duplicated - from Pope Pius V (1566- 1572) to have copies made. The Pope having acceded to this request, allowed the image to be taken to Borja's House, which presumably was the Convent of the Gesu. It is estimated that between ten and fifteen copies were made, probably between 1567 and 1569, and distributed to various parts of Europe. I was able to find that copies had been sent to the following:

1. Queen Catherine of Portugal. This copy was taken to her by Father Ignacio de Azevedo on or about mid-1569. Borja sent a letter along with it.

2. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

3. Chapel of St. Stanislau at St. Andrea de Quirinale. This was the church built by Borja for Jesuit novitiates.

4. Novitiate of the Company of Jesus at Galoro, near Rome.

A copy destined for Brazil was also given by Borja to Father Azevedo, who sailed from Lisbon, Portugal, in July of 1569 with thirty-nine other Jesuits. The ship, a Portuguese vessel named Santiago, was captured by the Huguenot (Calvinist) corsair Jacques Soris who slaughtered or put over board all the missionaries. It is said that Azevedo carried the holy painting above his head until he stopped floundering and disappeared under water. All the novices, who were between fourteen and seventeen years old, and Azevedo were beatified in 1854. Another copy of the icon finally arrived in Bahia, Brazil, in 1575 and was handed over to the Jesuits there.14

Four copies that Borja had intended for Mexico were actually sent after Borja's death by the next Jesuit Father General, Everardo Mercurian. They were given to co-adjutor Brother Gregorio Montes by the General himself and were to go to the first four colleges in New Spain. The first copy was given to the church of the Colegio Maximo de San Pedro y San Pablo in Mexico City. The other three went to colleges in Patzcuaro, Oaxaca and Puebla. (15)

When the Company was expelled from Mexico in 1767, the altar and paintings from Saint Peter and Saint Paul found their way to the church in San Bartolome Naucalpan in 1769. The Congregation of the Oratory of San Felipe Neri of Mexico City requested an interchange with that church for anything that they would like from the oratory. The exchange was consummated in 1812 and is the reason why the painting is back in La Profesa or San Jose el Real, its name when the Oratorians took over in 1771. (16)

Since the expulsion, the Jesuits have never returned to Patzcuaro, for lack of attendance. It was decided to transfer this painting, perhaps the most beautiful one of the four originals, from the College of the Company of Jesus to the Iglesia del Sagrario. This church is perhaps the only one with a truly public worship and hence care. (17)

The Jesuit College of Oaxaca was converted into barracks, and the church was abandoned. The Padres Filipenses (Oratorians), again came to the rescue by requesting the decorations and images from this most beautiful church in town. They received the painting which today is in the Church of San Felipe Neri, still being venerated in a right aisle niche. This image is perhaps the one that is most different from the other three. Even allowing for repainting, it seemed to Gonzalo Obregon that the artist was less skilled and turned out a piece of art that was inferior to the others. (18) This is the only painting in which the small book that the Child holds has the initials "IHS" on it.

The last of Borja's copies went to the Colegio del EspIritu Santo in Puebla de los Angeles. In the turmoil of 1767, the college was practically dismantled, but the church remained with almost all its ornaments. The painting is still there.

Of these originals, there are copies to be found in other parts of Mexico. One is a small copper miniature at the Museum of Chapultepec. The Domestic Chapel altarpiece at the Seminary of San Martin Tepotzotlan has a nice copy of the Virgin. It does not seem to be like the copies brought over by the Jesuits. Her head and hands are in slightly different positions. This church complex is today the National Viceregal Museum, Tepotzotlan. (19) In Mexico, the name of this image has taken several paths. In Oaxaca and Patzcuaro, they call her Virgen or Nuestra Senora del Populo. In Puebla, she is commonly referred to as Virgen del Populo, while in Mexico City it is Nuestra Senora de las Nieves. In other towns, local usage has also corrupted the true title of this image to Santa Marla la Mayor.

A church in Rome called Santa Marfa del Popolo- Our Lady of the People - also has a painting that is purported to be from the brush of St. Luke and is of the hodegetria - "she who shows or points the way." This particular image is referred to as the Madonna del Popolo. Although very Byzantine, it has a very different dress style and posture from the Salus Populi Romani, copies of which came to Mexico. It is anyone's guess why there was a mix-up in Mexico of the names of these very similar yet distinctly located images of Rome.

I believe that the various orders had a predilection for certain Marian saints, whether from their own order or from another order. The jesuits certainly tried magnificently to spread the cult of Salus Populi Romani. There is a copper plate engraving of Father Ricci in China, alongside a converted Chinese person of high rank. On the wall in the background, is a painting almost identical to the Madonna at Santa Maria Maggiore. (20) In the Philippines, students from the Loboc Jesuit School requested Father General Acquaviva in Rome for a replica of this painting. It is reported that Acquaviva stole a miniature or two from the "cares of the Society" to fulfill this request. (21)

In Japan, the Portuguese father and brothers taught painting to the local novices and students of the Jesuit seminaries. They apparently used books, prints, engravings, and pictures for this purpose. It is worth mentioning that I noticed a painting of Salus Populi Romani on the wall of the head Jesuit Father's office in one of the scenes of the television movie Shogun. This small vignette lent a great deal of credence for me of that particular scene! The impetus that Borja had created for the cult of Mary seems to have been propagated throughout the Catholic world and particularly in the New World and Mexico.

The premise of this article, drafted several years ago, was that with all the thrust given to the Madonna of Salus Populi Romani by Borja, I had never seen a retablo of this Virgin. As a matter of fact, I had not seen Borja painted on tin either. Both these images are present on canvas support in several museums of Mexico. There seem to be more copies of Francisco Borja than there are of the Virgin.

Juan Correa (1675-1715) painted an oil-on-canvas variation titled Virgen del Populo, whose dimensions are approximately 84" x 57". This rendition is slightly more elaborate than the originals from Rome in that it includes several cherubic faces and figures. The position of the Virgin and Child, as well as their expressions, is very similar to the European version. This painting is held by the International Institute of Iberian Colonial Art in Santa Fe, New Mexico. See Figure 2.22 Even this painting has been incorrectly identified several times, which did not help in the research efforts of this subject matter.

A Virgen de las Nieves, which is venerated in the region of Ixpantepec Nieves, Oaxaca is similar in composition to that of N.S. de la Salud, although she· has two mixteca shepherd boys kneeling in prayer to her, one on either side. The setting is a pastoral landscape. This full bodied image has no direct visual similarity to the N.S. de las Nieves, as Salus Populi Romani is referred to in Mexico City.

The only retablo representation that I have seen of the Roman Virgin is an oil rendition on rather thin copper that was probably copied from an eighteenth century German engraving. This 9 Y2" x 7 Y2" piece shows the Virgin and Child inside a golden frame that is being upheld by five full bodied and winged angels. The lower-third portion shows a scene with several church steeples on the right side and a Popish looking individual going through a ground-breaking ceremony on the left. He is being attended by eight< other clergy. It is a very dark-looking painting that is not as well executed as one would expect from a copper retablo. The fact that this retablo was being offered for sale by a dealer in Maryland and that it had some undecipherable Polish writing on the back made me think that perhaps it did not originate in Mexico.

(image needed here) Figure 2. Virgen del Populo by Juan Correa, at the International Institute of Iberian Colonial Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico' .

Formal paintings of Saint Francis Borja will usually have some, if not most, of the following attributes or characteristics:

1. Dressed in Jesuit cassock or habit and ankle-length cape, both of which are black.
2. Doctoral bonnet with or without a white tassel to indicate his Ph.D. in theology.
3. He is usually bearded.
4. Painted, full bodied, and follows the dictates used during colonial times for formal paintings.
5. Quite often very plain and somber style painting, often lacking most attributes.
6. Skull that is wearing a royal or imperial crown. This attribute is perhaps one of the most distinguishing one for this saint. The crown is not merely on the ground or table but should be on the head of the skull.
7. Book is in hand or perhaps on the shelves in the background. This attribute symbolizes the many colleges that he is known for having built or helped establish.
8. Some of the attributes listed previously, such as the Eucharist, cardinal's red hat, etc.

It would seem that his wishes not to have any authentic portrait of himself from real life has continued to the present day. In several Peruvian paintings on canvas, he is shown with Loyola as participating in a wedding ceremony between an Incan princess and a Spanish gentleman of royal descent. There are a fair number of missions named for Borja in the Sonoran and Baja Californian regions of Mexico, not to mention all the statues and altars that are dedicated to him. His presence in Mexico was very apparent and widely diffused. Both in the European as well as the New World setting he was a patron for stopping or preventing earthquakes.

It had been my wish for many years to be able to see or find a tin retablo of Borja. His visionary and tenacious work for the Society worldwide was perhaps most evident in the New World, both in the Spanish and Portuguese spheres of influence. Even with all these impressive credentials, he had been a most elusive retablo subject.

About nine months ago, I saw a 14" x 10" retablo with the following identifying elements (see Figure 3):

1. Young and beardless face.
2. Aquiline nose.
3. Dressed in standard Jesuit manner. Difficult to distinguish the outline where the cape meets the habit.
4. Doctoral bonnet on head, without tassels.
5. Book in left band and small crucifix in the other.
6. ,Quill, inkhorn, and lily stem on a table that is covered with a cloth.
7. Bookcase behind the table stacked with eight numbered volumes and twelve unnumbered volumes.
8. Top half of skull (paint missing on bottom half) covered with an imperial crown resting on the ground, on the left side of this painting.
9. Floral-designed tile floor. 10. A thin, white, circular halo.

I was talked out of buying this retablo because the dealer insisted it was a San Luis Gonzaga and I went along with this identification. The face is of a Figure 3. Retablo of Saint Francis Borja, owned by the young man rather than a more mature person, as author would be expected of Borja. Yet, San Luis was a mere novice and would not be wearing a biretta of an ordained priest. Luis is usually shown wearing a cassock with a white surplice over it. In retablo representations, I have not seen him with a halo over his head. Luis may have a small crown of the rank of a marquis located somewhere in the painting, but not that of an imperial rank. The crowned skull is what convinced me that my original identification was correct.

I phoned the dealer and purchased the retablo without any further ado. This also gave me the impetus to finish this article, which originally was going to have a denouement of the non-existence of a San Francisco de Borja retablo or of a Salus Populi Romani. Maybe with patience and luck, a retablo of this highly venerated Virgin of the Jesuits will also be found.

Footnotes:

1 It is interesting to note that while at Alcala de Henares, he witnessed a man being taken to the prison of the Inquisition. This person was none other than Ignatius Loyola, a Basque nobleman. See Butler, Alban. The Lives of the Saints. Vol. IV, p. 74.
2 New Catholic Enciciopedia. Vol. 2, p. 709.
3 Dalmases, Candido de. El Padre Francisco de Borja. p.206-207.
4 Campbell, Thomas J. The Jesuits, 1534-1921. p. 110.
5 Butler, Alban. The Lives of the Saints. Vol. IV, p. 77.
6 Ibid. Vol. IV, p. 90.
7 Schamoni, Wilhelm. The Face of the Saints. p.148.
8 Thompson, Francis. Saint Ignatius Loyola. Frontispiece.
9 Retratos de Personajes Espanoles. Vol. IV, Sec.G, No.1219.
10 New Catholic Enciciopedia. Vol. 2, p. 709.
11 No particular bibliographical credit is given, as facts and dates were culled from those sources listed in the bibliography. I have based these facts on what seems to make most sense, as Borja could have been beatified in two different years and canonized by three different popes, depending upon the book one reads.
12 Cahier, Charles. Caracteristiques des saints dans ['art populaire. p.486.
13 Pietrangeli, Carlo. Santa Maria Maggiore aRoma. p. 125.
14 Leite, Serafim. Suma Historica da Companhia de Jesus no Brasil (Assistencia de Portugal) 1549-1760. p. 125.
15 Obregon, Gonzal0. Notas alrededor de algunas imdgenes de la Compania de Jesus. p. 337.
16 Ibid. pp. 341-342.
17 Ibid. p. 345.
18 Ibid. p. 346. I can vouch for the location of the Mexico City and Puebla copies, but have not physically seen the other two.
19 "TepotzotIan," in Artes de Mexico. p. 125.
20 Fiilop-Miller, Rene. The power and secret of the Jesuits. Plate 84.
21 de la Costa, Horacio. The Jesuits in the Philippines, 1581-1768. p.312.
22 Vargas Lugo, Elisa. Juan Correa: su vida y su obra. Tomo II, Parte I, p. 215.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Angulo Iniguez, Diego. Historia del arte hispanoamericano. Barcelona: Salvat Editore, S.A., 1950- 1956, 3 vols.

"Tepotzotlan" in Artes de Mexico. Numero 62/63, Ano XII, 1965. Cooperation with Instituto Nacional de Antropologfa e Historia, Mexico,D.F.

Attwater, Donald. A Dictf.onary of Mary. New York: Kenedy, 1956.

Baird, Joseph Armstrong. The Churches of Mexico, 1530-1810. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962.

Bentivoglio, Enzo. Santa Maria del Popolo aRoma. Roma: Bardi, 1976.

Butler, Alban, Rev. The Lives of the Saints. Edited, revised and supplemented by Herbert Thurston, SJ., and Donald Attwater. New York: Kenedy, 1956, 4 vols.

--------. The Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and other Principal Saints. Baltimore: John Murphy & Co., 1866, 4 vols.

Cahier, P. Charles. Caracteristiques des saints dans l'art populaire, enumerees et expliquees par le P.

Ch. Cahier. Bruxelles: Cultureet Civilisation, 1966,2 vols. in 1.

Campbell, Thomas Joseph. The Jesuits, 1534-1921; a history of the Society of Jesus from its foundation to the present time. New York: The Encyclopedia Press, c1921, 2 vols.

Cecchelli, Carlo. 1 Mosaici della Basilica di S. Maria Maggiore. Torino: ILTE, 1956.

Costa, Horacio de la, SJ. The Jesuits in the Philippines, 1581-1768. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1961.

Dalmases, Candido de. El Padre Francisco de Borja. Madrid: Editorial Catolica, 1983.

Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana. Barcelona: Espasa, 1907?-30, 70 vols.

Exposi{:iio de Arte Sacra, Retrospectiva Brasileira. XXXVI Congresso Eucarfstico 1nternacional. Rio de Janeiro: Grafica Olimpica, 1955.

Ferrando Roig, Juan. 1conografia de los Santos. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, 1950;

Husenbeth, Frederick Charles, V. Rev. Emblems of Saints: by which they are distinguished in works of art. Norwich: A.H. Goose and Co., 1882.

Leite, Serafim, SJ. Suma Hist6rica da Companhia de Jesus no Brasil (Assistencia de Portugal) 1549- 1760. Lisboa: Junta de Investiga~6es do Ultramar, 1965.

FUlop-Miller, Rene. The Power and Secret of the Jesuits. New York: The Viking Press, 1930.

New Catholic Enciciopedia. Prepared by an editorial staff at the Catholic University of America. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1967-79, ITvols.

Obregon, Gonzalo. "Notas alrededor de algunas imagenes de la Compania de Jesus en la Provincia de Nueva Espana", Pg.335-350 inclusive, in La Compafiia de Jesus en Mexico: Cuatro Siglo de Labor Cultural (1572-1972). Other: Manuel Ignacio Perez Alonso. Mexico: Editorial Jus, 1975.

Pietrangeli, Carlo. Santa Maria Maggiore aRoma. Firenze: Nardini, c 1988.

Reau, Louis. lconographie de l'Art chretien. Paris: Presses Universftaires de France, 1955-59,3 vols. in 6 parts.

Retratos de Personajes Espafioles: Indice llustrado. Junta de lconografla Nacional. Madrid: Imprenta Clasica Espanola, 1914-29, 10 parts in 1 vol. '

Roeder, Helen. Saints and their attributes: with a guide to localities and patronage. London: Longmans, reen, 1955.

Schamoni, Wilhelm. The Face of the Saints. Translation by Anne Fremantle. (New York): Pantheon, c.1947.

Thompson, Francis. Saint Ignatius Loyola. Edited by John H. Pollen, SJ. London: Bums, Oates & Washboume,1909?

Vargas Lugo, Elisa. Juan Correa: su vida y su obra. Mexico, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Imprenta Universitaria, 1985. Torno 2, 2 partes.

Waters, Clara Erskin Clement. A Handbook of Christian Symbols and Stories of the Saints as Illustrated in Art. Edited by Katherine E. Conway. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1971.

Zambrano, Francisco, SJ. La Compafiia de Jesus en Mexico: Compendio Historico. Mexico, D.F.:

Buena Prensa, 1939.

Notes that were left out from Saint Francis Borja article

Pg, 6 '" images of Rome, In Brasil, local preference has chosen Nossa Senhora de Sao Lucas - Our Lady of Saint Luke. Even a Mexican Jesuit history book written by a Jesuit priest, states that the four copies of the Virgin of San Lucas were brought to Mexico in 15 76,1 What seems to have been omitted from all copies are the Greek characters MP OY.

At this juncture, I would like to bring up Our Lady of Perpetual Help - Nuestra Senora del Perpetuo Socorro - because of the many fringe and direct similarities to the Madonna at Santa Maria Maggiore. Its original history in short, is: saved from invading Turks on the island of Crete; a dream is also involved in its resurfacing from hiding; today it is located in the Church of Sant'Alfonso on Momit Esquiline; only authentic reproductions are made by the Redemptorists for their churches; there are many unofficial reproductions being made; this Byzantine styled icon is also purported to have been painted by St, Lucas; etc,.. It would be oflittle use, for purposes of this short article, to delve into all the facts concerning this virgin, There is a very strong following for her in Mexico and many other countries around the world,

It is interesting to note how many "Byzantine type icons" or holy images in the form of statues follow the general path of:

1, Highly venerated at a particular location, church, shrine,

2, The enemy shows up as an invading army in the form of Saracens, Moors, Arabs, Tartars, '

3, The image is saved by being removed and taken to safety or perhaps hidden in the hollow of a tree, in a maguey plant, in a cave, etc,

4, The image is rediscovered by some miraculous form of appearance, dream, or other visual manifestation.

5. The cult, reverence, following has a resurgence of popularity.

Pg. 7 ". this subject matter,

In order to give us another perspective of this virgin, please see Figure 3. This is an anonymous XVIII century painting, approximately 30" x 24" which is in the second tier of the Domestic Chapel in the MuseoNacional del Virreinato at Tepotzotlan, Mexico, It is titled Virgen del Populo, 2 We notice that it is slightly more 'modern' in its presentation, Even though there seems to be more 'sweetness', the basic identifying details are there. The hands of the Holy Mother are slightly different from that in Figure 1. The book is not being held by the Child in His left hand, Instead, He is holding His mother's left thumb! His sandaled feet are also not visible,

1. Zambrano, Francisco, 8,J. La Compaiiia de Jesus en Mexico. p, 6,
2. Pintura Novohispana: Museo Nacional del Virreinato: Tepotzotlan, TomoJ. 1992, p, 87,